Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 34095), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 25°S - 38°S
Western Pacific: Queensland to Victoria, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4690)
Found in seagrass beds in estuaries (extremely common during reproductive season in the austral Spring) and coastal bays, and sponge gardens on inshore reefs. Venomous dorsal spines often inflict a painful sting to fishers (Ref. 34095, 39597). Of no commercial importance but often entrapped in fishing gears such as trawls and can be dangerous to fishermen who attempt to remove these (Ref. 39597).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 24.2, mean 20.7 °C (based on 105 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 75.5 [28.8, 203.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.25 [0.63, 2.90] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.5, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.657 [0.229, 2.019] g/100g ; Selenium = 13 [5, 35] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 134 [32, 572] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.64 [0.91, 2.99] mg/100g (wet weight);