Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 14 - 60 m (Ref. 30573), usually 15 - 50 m (Ref. 4313). Deep-water
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and the Persian Gulf south to Natal, South Africa and east to India and the Philippines, north to China and Japan, south Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3503)
Inhabits soft bottoms of the continental shelf. Primarily known from trawls over prawn-grounds but divers looking in suitable habitats can come across them, especially at night. During the day it buries itself deep in the sand with just the eyes exposed. When disturbed, it spreads its long pectoral fins with the bright upper color to deter predators. It uses its fins to corner prey and has sensitive barbels below the mouth to detect those buried in the substrate (Ref. 48635). Fin spines venomous (anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406)) (Ref. 30573). Sold in small quantities either fresh or dried and salted in markets. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poss, S.G. and K.V. Rama Rao, 1984. Scorpaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3503)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 1680 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.1250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00447 - 0.03086), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .