Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pinguipedidae
Etymology: Parapercis: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335); natator: Name from Latin word meaning swimmer, refers to its habit of swimming in small aggregations above the bottom. More on authors: Randall, Senou & Yoshino.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 45 m (Ref. 75205). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75205)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 5 - 6;
soft rays: 18;
Vertebrae: 30. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D V, 22 (one with VI); A I, 18; pectoral-fin rays 17 or 18 (usually 17); lateral-line scales 59-61; median predorsal scales 10-11; gill rakers 3-5+10-13; projecting lower jaw; canine teeth 3 pairs anteriorly in lower jaw; palatine teeth absent; vomer has a row of 10-14 small conical teeth; body scales finely ctenoid, becoming cycloid ventrally on abdomen, prepelvic area, nape, and below spinous portion of dorsal fin; above posterior margin of preopercle at level of dorsal edge of orbit is an isolated round patch of small cycloid scales; opercle and cheek with small, cycloid and partially embedded scales; preopercle with smooth margin; body depth 5.0-6.1 in SL; head length 3.3-3.6 in SL; snout length 3.65-4.5 in HL; orbit diameter 3.1-3.4 in HL; very broad interorbital space, 3.35-4.4 in HL; third or fourth dorsal spine longest, 3.25-3.65 in HL; caudal fin in females emarginate, in males lunate; pectoral fins slightly emarginate, 4.2-4.7 in SL; pelvic fins reaching or slightly extending posterior to origin of anal fin, 3.8-4.75 in SL. Preserved color of males pale yellowish with a slightly oblique, broad, purplish gray bar anteriorly on body, bordered by a pale bar and a narrow purplish gray bar; in females pale yellowish; base of membranes of spinous portion of dorsal fin dark brown. Color in life of males red to violet-red dorsally, grading to lavender-pink ventrally, a yellow bar beneath anterior fourth of soft portion of dorsal fin, bordered by a pale-edged bright red bar; spinous portion of dorsal fin orange-red, many yellow spots on the soft portion; caudal fin with deep red lobes; axil of pectoral fins with a bright red spot at the base and; in females light red dorsally on body with 10 darker red bars on about upper one-fourth that are narrower posteriorly; 14 orangish pink bars of unequal width on lower side of body; spinous portion of dorsal fin is bright orange-red, deep red to blackish at base except last membrane white; soft portion of dorsal fin with numerous red spots; caudal fin lobes red; base and axil of pectoral fins in a bright red spot bordered by white; juveniles has a narrow orange stripe, bordered by white, from behind eye to upper base of caudal fin, the anterior third showing paler lateral line; ventral half of body pink; spinous portion of dorsal fin red with a black spot near base of membranes, except white first and last membranes; soft portion of fin translucent with many dark reddish brown spots (Ref. 75205).
This species is reported to be an active swimmer and occur in a small aggregation hovering a short distance above the substratum. About 6 individuals were observed to swim only 10-20 cm above the bottom and held their body at an angle with the head end upward. The type specimens were collected from the depth range of 15-45 m (Ref. 75205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., H. Senou and T. Yoshino, 2008. Three new pinguipedid fishes of the genus Parapercis from Japan. Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. Ser. A. Suppl. 2:69-84. (Ref. 75205)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00289 - 0.01442), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .