Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Pseudotriakidae
Etymology: Gollum: Named for the antihero of Tolkien’s “Lord of the Rings” trilogy, to which G. attenuatus “bears some resemblance in form and habits”. (See ETYFish); attenuatus: Latin for drawn out or tapered, refer- ring to its “attenuate, almost anguilliform as though emaciated” shape. (See ETYFish).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 120 - 660 m (Ref. 26346), usually 400 - 600 m (Ref. 13566). Deep-water; - 46°S
Southwest Pacific: occurs off New Zealand and on rises between New Zealand and the east coast of Australia, New Caledonia, and Fiji just south of the Western Central Pacific. Placement in Proscyllidae provisional, probably will be relocated in Pseudotriakidae.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 70 - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6893); 109.2 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
An uncommon to common deep-water bottom-dwelling shark found on the outermost continental shelf and upper slope of New Zealand and on adjacent seamounts and submarine banks (Ref. 13566). Seems adapted to waters of about 10°C and 34.8 ppt salinity (Ref. 6893). Feeds on a wide variety of fishes, cephalopods, and other invertebrates (Ref. 13566). Probably in schools (Ref. 13566). Females grow slightly larger than males (Ref. 13566). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother, uterine milk is consumed additionally (Ref. 50449). Two young are born per litter (Ref. 13566).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), embryos feed on yolk and ova, also consume uterine milk (Ref. 50449). With usually 2 young per litter (Ref. 13566). Fetuses eat unfertilized eggs and store consumed yolk in their yolk sacs (Ref. 13566). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7.9 - 10.1, mean 9.5 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00138 - 0.00958), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100).