Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory, usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 63°N - 28°N, 32°W - 25°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco and the Azores. Also known from the western Mediterranean and Adriatic seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.5, range 7 - 10 cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 4742)
(total): 14 - 17;
soft rays: 8 - 11. A few cephalic pores (7-12) on snout. Lips with 5-7 folds. Scales on temporo-occipital surface 3-5 rows; on inter-operculum 2-3 (6-13) scales; on cheek 4-7; behind eye 1. A small dark spot on caudal peduncle. Often 5 large brown blotches near dorsal fin. Females and young: with numerous spots on body more or less longitudinally lined, some sinuous lines on head (Ref. 231). Coloration very variable; ground color of the male is greenish or blue while females are brownish to yellowish (Ref. 35388).
This schooling, territorial fish occurs in the littoral zone, near rocks and eel-grass beds, also in lagoons. In summer ripe females show short ovipositor. Seaweed nest built by male among rocks or in crevices. Sex reversal sometimes observed. Feed on mollusks, hydroids, bryozoans, worms and various crustaceans (Ref. 4742). Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Sex reversal sometimes observed. Seaweed nest built by male among rocks or in crevices (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8.8 - 17.2, mean 10.5 °C (based on 514 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00575 - 0.01320), b=3.10 (2.98 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21-0.41; tm=2-3; tmax=9).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 17.3 [8.9, 30.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.24 [0.15, 0.43] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [16, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.351 [0.192, 0.665] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.61 [4.52, 19.98] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 61.3 [15.4, 251.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.824 [0.534, 1.514] mg/100g (wet weight);