Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 15 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Pacific: Indonesia and Brunei.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Solitary or in small groups. Found in caves and ledges on coastal reefs in 3-15 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2000. Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 2000. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 2000. (Ref. 36656)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.8 - 29.2, mean 29 °C (based on 493 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00690 - 0.03171), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .