Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Fowleria: Taken from Fowler, ichthyiologist, 1945 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 27 m (Ref. 11441), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 24°S
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Oman, Persian Gulf, Kenya, Maldives; east to the Samoa Islands; north to Ryukyu Islands and south to New South Wales (Australia).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VII + I,9; A II,8; pectoral fin rays 12-14; lateral-line scales 23 (23rd overlapping caudal-fin base), the first 10-13 with tubes; median predorsal scales 4; total gill-rakers 3-4 + 11-13; developed rakers 1+ 5-6; rear edge of preopercle ridge smooth, the lower edge membranous and crenulate; body depth 2.5-2.95, head length 2.3-2.4 in SL; snout length 4.2-4.5, eye diameter 3.1-3.8, interorbital width 5.8-7.05, and upper-jaw length 1.9-2.0, all in head length; jaws and vomer with villiform teeth in bands, none on palatines; caudal-peduncle depth 1.15-1.45 in peduncle length, and peduncle length 4.2-4.7 in SL; round shaped caudal fin (Ref. 50837).
Found in coral reefs and seagrass beds of inner bays and shallow lagoons (Ref. 1602); also in dead reef and rubble (Ref. 48635). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
CDistinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Gon, O. and J.E. Randall, 2003. A review of the cardinalfishes (Perciformes: Apogonidae) of the Rea Sea. Smithiana Bull. 1:1-47. (Ref. 50837)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3220 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00837 - 0.02384), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 164 [92, 309] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.965 [0.610, 1.780] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.9, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.167 [0.094, 0.294] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.4 [11.9, 50.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 70.4 [21.7, 234.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.61 [1.05, 2.48] mg/100g (wet weight);