Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 865 m (Ref. 5123). Subtropical; 35°N - 7°S
Eastern Pacific: southern region of California Current south of 35°N.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.6 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Adults are found in continental slope regions. Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35612). Larvae and juveniles pelagic in the upper 200-m layer and more broadly distributed than adults (Ref. 5123).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Moser, H.G. and J.L. Butler, 1996. Microstomatidae: argentines and pencilfishes. p. 208-215. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current Region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. 1505 p. (Ref. 35612)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.8 - 14.8, mean 11.4 (based on 35 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .