Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 320 m (Ref. 58018). Subtropical
Western Central Atlantic: West Caribbean Sea, 16°36'N, 82°37'W.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1999. Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 1999. (Ref. 33021)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.8 - 26.3, mean 21.8 °C (based on 47 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .