Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Scomber: Greek, skombros = tunny or mackerel, 1623 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 46°N - 65°S, 98°W - 42°E
Atlantic Ocean. Warm water; eastern and western coasts, including the Mediterranean and southern Black Sea. Replaced by Scomber japonicus in the Indo-Pacific.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 121850)
Adults and juveniles feed mainly on zooplankton, with relative importance of larger organisms such as cephalopods, crustaceans and small pelagic fish increases with the size of individuals. Caught mostly in purse seine and pelagic trawl fisheries which target sardine and/or anchovy. Usually a by-catch but when availability of target species is low, this species provided an alternative income (Ref. 121850)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1999. Mackerels, molecules, and morphology. p. 149-164. In B. Séret and J.-Y. Sire (eds.) Proc. 5th Indo-Pac. Fish Conf., Noumea, Paris. (Ref. 33246)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.9 - 27.3, mean 22.5 °C (based on 492 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00435 - 0.01263), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.2 (3.5 - 5.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.90, Based on 6 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.6 [9.1, 77.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.801 [0.308, 2.014] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.0, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 1.41 [0.70, 2.88] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.8 [18.5, 117.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.2 [5.7, 134.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.897 [0.502, 1.500] mg/100g (wet weight);