Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 500 m (Ref. 54925), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 54925). Subtropical; 7°N - 37°S, 4°E - 24°E (Ref. 54925)
Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea to South Africa. Bianchi et. al. 1993 notes 'Smith-Vaniz (1992, pers. comm.) does not believe that Trachurus capensis is a valid species but admits that an adequate series of this species along the coast of Africa are not available'.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.5, range 20 - 33 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3166); common length : 30.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3166)
Adults are found mainly over the continental shelf, often over sand bottoms (Ref. 27121). Shoals rise to feed in surface waters at night and found close to the bottom during the day (Ref. 27121). Juveniles feed mainly on copepods while adults prey on fish and a wide range of invertebrates (Ref. 27121).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter, 1990. Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.2 - 15.2, mean 11.2 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00623 - 0.01681), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.8 (2.6 - 10.0) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.42; tm=2).
Prior r = 0.48, 95% CL = 0.32 - 0.72, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 190 [127, 278] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.89 [2.48, 5.98] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [19.2, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.351 [0.257, 0.475] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.3 [22.5, 42.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.9 [4.4, 56.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.78 [1.39, 2.33] mg/100g (wet weight);