Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Soleichthys: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe) + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 3 - 43 m (Ref. 76812). Subtropical; 30°S - 34°S (Ref. 76812)
Southwest Pacific: warm-temperate New South Wales, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 61 - 71;
Vertebrae: 43 - 45. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: vertebrae 43-45; dorsal-fin rays 71-84; anal-fin rays 61-71; lateral-line scales 81-89; ocular-side pigmentation pattern consists of 8-10 dark-brown to black, mostly complete crossbands on the body, with these bands noticeably wider than the alternating lighter-colored crossbands; 3 dark brown
crossbands continuous across head; 2 conspicuous white spots in longitudinal series on the ocular-side midline; 2 elongated ocular-side pectoral-fin rays of nearly equal length or with the second fin ray longer than first; small scales on bases and proximal halves of elongated ocular-side pectoral-fin rays (Ref. 76812).
Found in estuaries and harbors, usually buried in muddy substrate (Ref. 9002). Move with undulating body when disturbed, reminiscent of distasteful flatworm, thus possibly deterring predators (Ref. 9002).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and S.B. Menke, 2004. Two new soleid flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae: Soleichthys) from Australian waters, with a re-description of Soleichthys microcephalus (Günther). Rec. Aust. Mus. 56:247-258. (Ref. 76812)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.7 - 22.5, mean 21.3 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00454 - 0.02011), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100).