Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335); uluguru: Named for the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania, where the fish have first been collected; a noun in apposition (Ref. 26644).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 7.2 - 7.2. Tropical
Africa: restricted to the Upper Ruvu drainage on the eastern and possibly southeastern slopes of the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania (Ref. 26644).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26644)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9 - 11. Diagnosis: small species with long head, 18.8-25.0% SL; snout relatively long, 28.6-37.0% SL, with narrow cleft and peculiar structure of the inferior positioned mouth; opercular disc of males shallow, with rounded outer edge; pectoral fin long, 14.9-17.7% SL; preanal length relatively short, 65.0-71.9% SL; 79-87 lateral line scales, which tends to increase with increasing length of the fish; distinct blackish streak from tip of snout to caudal fin, which may be coverd by dark bluish spots; dorsal fin origin clearly behind pelvic fin origin (Ref. 26644).
Maximum total length recorded is 5.31cm TL; inhabits clear streams and rivers with very fast current to more gentle waterflow, but more numerous in the quieter stretches; omnivorous, but feeds mainly on algae and aufwuchs rasped off from stones; apparently no marked spawning season (Ref. 26644).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Seegers, L., 1995. Revision of the Kneriidae of Tanzania with description of three new Kneria species (Teleostei: Gonorhynchifromes). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 6(2):97-128. (Ref. 26644)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .