Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 5.5 - 7.2; dH range: 5 - 15. Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 13614)
South America: Amazon River basin from Peru to Marajó Island, including tributaries Araguaia and Guaporé Rivers; Orinoco River basin near the mouth; Essequibo River basin.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 79673)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinct large black spot on underside of caudal peduncle.
Found mostly in freshwater and coastal streams, but can tolerate brackish water. Sometimes kept in aquariums (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25. (Ref. 6329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03020 (0.01757 - 0.05190), b=2.87 (2.73 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .