Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 50 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 30°N - 4°N, 19°W - 8°W
Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa from West Sahara to Liberia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6499); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2716)
Occurs on the continental shelf (Ref. 6499).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1990. Psettodidae. p. 1024. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.3 - 27.9, mean 24.8 °C (based on 26 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.6 [13.4, 66.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.316 [0.164, 0.599] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [17, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.244 [0.121, 0.489] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.4 [9.0, 56.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.35 [1.25, 33.38] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.317 [0.205, 0.486] mg/100g (wet weight);