Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Tropical; 33°N - 13°S, 27°W - 15°E (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Atlantic: Western Sahara to Angola, including Cape Verde and the Sao Tome and Principe islands. Also recorded from the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Distinguished by the following characteristics: body depth less than head length, 2.8-3.2 in SL; head length 2.7-3.0 in SL; interorbital area convex; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, with shallow notch, fleshy lower edge; subopercle and interopercle with few small serrae covered by skin; maxilla reaching vertical at rear edge of eye or beyond; pectoral fins longer than pelvic fins, pectoral fin length contained 1.5-1.7 in HL; pelvic fins reaching or nearly reaching anus; caudal fin rounded; lateral-body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales (Ref. 089707).
Found on sandy and rocky bottoms (Ref. 32181). Diandric protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 089707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 32181). Low ratio of males in population correlated with polygamy (Ref. 32181). This study (Ref. 32181), concluded that some males of C. taeniops may not pass through a functional female stage as observed in most groupers, and that these males may have developed directly from immature females conferring with the hypothesis of Shapiro (1987). Diandric (Ref. 103751).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.8 - 20.7, mean 19.2 °C (based on 47 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00645 - 0.01480), b=3.10 (2.98 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 8.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 97.4 [48.4, 211.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.607 [0.276, 1.188] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.1, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.263 [0.139, 0.495] g/100g ; Selenium = 80 [37, 173] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.2 [9.7, 94.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.703 [0.427, 1.281] mg/100g (wet weight);