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Coregonus maraena (Bloch, 1779)

Maraena whitefish
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Coregonus maraena   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Coregonus maraena (Maraena whitefish)
Coregonus maraena
Picture by Freyhof, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 88171); depth range 10 - 20 m (Ref. 130226). Temperate; 69°N - 49°N, 7°E - 37°E (Ref. 59043)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: In the Baltic Sea: Swedish coast (including Bothnian Gulf, not in Gotland); in southern Baltic, extending from the Schlei to Gulf of Finland. Southeast North Sea Basin: Ems, Weser and Elbe drainages and small rivers of Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Landlocked in several lakes in Poland, Sweden, and Russia. Introduced and transplanted in many drainages within its native range and outside westward to Rhine drainage (Ref. 59043). Apparent abundance in Germany, Poland and Scandinavia results from the massive stocking programs without which the populations would rapidly decline. Usually known as C. lavaretus in the Baltic Sea basin. North Sea population might represent a distinct species (Ref. 59043).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 593); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 593)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Forages along coasts. Also reported from deep, oligo-mesotrophic lakes. Feeds on benthic prey (crustaceans, molluscs, large insect larvae, small fish). Spawns in shallow water, in rapids or small rivers or over firm sediments in lowland rivers and estuaries. Northernmost stocks undertake the longest migrations between spawning and foraging grounds. In the northern part of the range, individuals may travel as much as 700 km between these areas (Ref. 59043). Growth parameters from Russia suggest a maximum age of 20 years (Ref. 56506) . Members of the genus Coregonus readily hybridise with other Coregonus species and populations (Ref. 89548).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduction | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larvae

Adults ascend rivers between June and October (northern Baltic) or November (southern Baltic), when water temperature drops below 10 °C. Spawning occurs in estuarine areas with low salinities or lower reaches of rivers or rapids (Ref. 59043). Coregonus species spawn on gravel and sand bottoms (Ref. 35387). Spawns for the first time at 3-5 years. Some females spawn only every second year (Ref. 59043). Spawners may spend the winter in rivers or near estuaries along the coast (Ref. 89484). Eggs hatch in early spring and larvae drift downstream to estuarine bays or to the sea; juveniles migrate to the sea in summer (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2cd); Date assessed: 05 March 2010


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Trophic ecology
Food items
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Population dynamics
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Mass conversions
Life cycle
Spawning aggregations
Egg developments
Larval dynamics
FAO areas
BRUVS - Videos
Gill areas
Body compositions
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fish sounds
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Aquaculture profiles
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 4.5 - 9.7, mean 7.5 °C (based on 174 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00328 - 0.00878), b=3.20 (3.06 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.