Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 9°C - 27°C (Ref. 2906); 26°S - 33°S
Oceania: Georges River northwards to the Burnett River in Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 36 - 40 cm
Max length : 81.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2906); common length : 35.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 2906); max. published weight: 7.5 kg (Ref. 2906); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 44894)
Often occur in small groups in deep pools where stream flow is slow. Inhabit deep, gently flowing sections of rivers. Also occur in estuaries and coastal seas during spawning runs. Tolerant of temperatures between 9° and 27°C. Form small shoals (Ref. 44894). Mainly herbivorous. Feed on filamentous green algae, microscopic plants and animals as well as detritus. Also consume benthic invertebrates. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Spawn in estuaries or at sea following a downstream migration in summer. Peak spawning activity is in February. Sexual maturity is reached after 4 years at a length of about 30 centimeters. Maximum life span is approximately 14 years (Ref. 44894).
Merrick, J.R. and G.E. Schmida, 1984. Australian freshwater fishes: biology and management. Griffin Press Ltd., South Australia. 409 p. (Ref. 2906)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00545 - 0.02418), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.20 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=4; Fec=1.1 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .