Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Retroculinae
Etymology: Retroculus: Latin, retro = backwards, on the back side + Latin, oculus = eye; the relative posterior position of the eye in the head as compared to other cichlids (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: ? - 15. Tropical; 22°C - 27°C (Ref. 2059)
South America: Amazon River basin, in the Tocantins and Capim River basins, Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377)
In adults, males are larger, with extended dorsal, anal and pelvic fins (Ref. 37197).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pair builds nest of about 60 cm diameter in gravel. Both parents defend nest; about 200 eggs are frequently reshuffled by both parents; larvae hatched 5-6 days after spawning.
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00520 - 0.02206), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .