Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 9002), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 86913). Temperate
Indo-Pacific: southern Australia and New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 16 - 19;
soft rays: 6 - 8;
Vertebrae: 34. This species is characterized by the following: small mouth, somewhat ventral on head; fleshy lips, upper lip projecting, maxilla reaching a vertical through posterior nostril; small teeth, mainly tricuspid, a few lanceolate, in 3-4 rows in jaws, with outermost row largest; vomerine teeth in small patch; nostrils 2 pairs, anterior pair with fleshy tentaculate flaps on anteroventral margin and posteroventral margin; opercle with broad flat spine, does not extend to the fleshy margin; scales are small, cycloid, embedded, extending on to cheeks and opercles, and forming a sheath along base of spinous dorsal fin (Ref. 86913).
Inhabits weedy reef slopes (Ref. 9002). Feeds on algae (mainly red, Ref. 86913), and the small invertebrates living amongst it. A poor food fish with its flesh described as coarse with a rank flavor (Ref. 86913).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 2000. Review of the southern temperate fish family Aplodactylidae (Pisces: Perciformes). J. Nat. Hist. 34(1):2157-2171. (Ref. 86913)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.4 - 17.9, mean 15.8 °C (based on 207 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00250 - 0.01100), b=3.15 (2.96 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 12 [5, 24] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.244 [0.128, 0.438] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.6, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.179 [0.085, 0.360] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.1 [6.0, 38.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.9 [2.4, 62.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.744 [0.454, 1.198] mg/100g (wet weight);