Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Cichlinae
Etymology: Cichla: Greek, kichle = wrasse (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.5 - 6.5. Tropical; 27°C - 29°C (Ref. 13614)
South America: Orinoco River basin, in tributaries of the Orinoco River in Colombia and Venezuela; Amazon River basin, in the Negro River basin, Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0, range 26 - 30 cm
Max length : 61.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377); max. published weight: 6.2 kg (Ref. 72380)
Diagnosis: Differs from its congeners by typical presence of three large dark ocellated blotches along side, but occasionally blotches 2 and 3 irregularly developed or not ocellated. Lateral band abbreviated in juveniles. Differs from other species of Cichla with abbreviated juvenile lateral band by absence (vs. presence) of well defined vertical bars in adults; from ocellaris also by lateral line nearly always discontinuous vs. nearly always continuous, by absence (vs. presence) of bars 1a and 2a and absence (vs. presence) of abdominal blotches; from kelberi, monoculus, and pleiozona also by absence (vs. presence) of abdominal blotches and occipital bar, and presence (vs. absence) of postorbital markings; from nigromaculata also by absence (vs. presence) of bars 1a and 2a, and absence (vs. presence) of small black blotches on dorsum (Ref. 57716).
Inhabits rivers (Ref. 12251). Is usually captured in shallow near-shore areas of lagoons and slow moving reaches of the river channel. Feeds mainly on small characiform fish (Ref. 26329, 27531).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kullander, S.O. and E.J.G. Ferreira, 2006. A review of the South American cichlid genus Cichla, with descriptions of nine new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 17(4):289-398. (Ref. 57716)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00694 - 0.02391), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.08).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .