Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acipenseriformes
(Sturgeons and paddlefishes) > Acipenseridae
(Sturgeons) > Acipenserinae
Etymology: Acipenser: Latin, acipenser = sturgeon, 1853 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - ? m. Temperate; 71°N - 36°N, 11°E - 111°E (Ref. 124675)
Eurasia: rivers draining to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas; Siberia from Ob eastward to Yenisei drainages. Introduced throughout Europe, without formation of self-sustaining populations. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). International trade restricted (CITES II, since 1.4.98; CMS Appendix II for Danube population).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.8, range 40 - 45 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6866); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 16.0 kg (Ref. 593); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 556)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 14 - 18. Back and flanks are beige. Five rows of scutes : 12-17D, 57-71L, 10-19V. Ventrals and laterals are very light-colored, nearly white. Narrow and pointed snout with four long and fringed barbels. Inferior lip clearly slit (Ref. 40476). Can be diagnosed from congeners in Europe by having 56-71 lateral scutes, first dorsal scute not fused with head, barbels fimbriate, lower lip interrupted in middle and 11-27 gill rakers (Ref. 59043).
A fluvial fish which inhabits rivers and their tributaries (Ref. 9696). Occurs in large rivers, usually in the current and in deep water. Moves to flooded areas to feed (Ref. 59043). Chiefly potamodromous (Ref. 58897). Like other sturgeons, it aggregates in bottom holes in winter and exhibits little activity. In spring, when ice breaks, it rises from the bottom holes and moves upstream for spawning (Ref. 593). Spawns in habitats with strong-current on gravel, rarely on gravel-sand bottom or in flooded sites. Juveniles stay in riverine habitats during their first summer. Classified as endangered species. Anadromous populations are now extirpated; local populations are still surviving in most parts of range (Ref. 59043).
Scatters eggs on gravel.
Birstein, V.J., 1993. Sturgeons and paddlefishes: threatened fishes in need of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 7:773-787. (Ref. 6866)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00141 (0.00081 - 0.00246), b=3.27 (3.12 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 13.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=5-9; tmax=36; K=0.12; Fec=11,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.8 [16.2, 56.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.285 [0.179, 0.468] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [13.9, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.808 [0.419, 1.592] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.8 [11.9, 61.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.45 [2.98, 27.32] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.585 [0.400, 0.877] mg/100g (wet weight);