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Neotrygon kuhlii  (Müller & Henle, 1841)

Blue-spotted stingray
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Image of Neotrygon kuhlii (Blue-spotted stingray)
Neotrygon kuhlii
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Neotrygoninae

Issue
This species consists of a complex or several species and the type series consists of multiple species. Some information (data from references) collated for this species in FishBase may not be applicable. Modifications - in progress.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 170 m (Ref. 89055), usually ? - 90 m (Ref. 9840).   Tropical; 33°N - 33°S, 28°E - 154°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: Solomon Islands, but probably more widespread in Oceania (limits of its distribution need to be defined).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 27.6, range 12 - 46.5 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This medium-sized Neotrygon of the kuhlii-complex (reaching at least 30 cm DW) is distinguished by the following set of characters: disc is broader than long, its width ca. 1.2 times length; pectoral apices are narrowly rounded; snout rather fleshy, broadly angular, its angle ca. 107°, its length 1.7-2.1 times interorbital width; maximum width is relatively well back on disc, the length from snout tip to pectoral-fin insertion 1.8-1.9 times and disc width 2.5-2.6 times horizontal distance from snout tip to maximum disc width; preoral length is 2.4-2.8 times mouth width; internasal distance is 1.5-1.8 in prenasal length; interspiracular distance is 13-15% DW; nostril length is 2.8-4.1% DW; nasal curtain width is 8-8.3% DW; mouth small, its width 6.4-6.8% DW; horizontal distance from cloaca to caudal sting base ca. 55% of disc length; nuchal region with thornlets, none from tail in all sizes; no dermal denticles; 113 pectoral-fin radials (based on new specimen); 133 total vertebral centra (including synarcual), 39 trunk centra (including synarcual); presence of blue spots that are very small and sparse, largest spot on disc 0.3-0.5 times eye width; median belt with 0-6 (mean 3.0) blue spots, largest ~2.1% DW; pronounced mask-like marking, not covered with dark peppery spots; ventral surface of disc and pelvic fins with broad dark greyish submarginal bands; when fresh, ventral tail fold and adjacent tail bluish grey (Ref. 116741).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A solitary species found on sandy bottoms near rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Usually found in deeper water but moves onto the reef flat and into shallow lagoons at high tide (Ref. 12951). Occasionally covers itself with sand, leaving only its eyes and tail visible (Ref. 37816). Feeds on crabs and shrimps (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). The venomous spine can inflict a painful wound (Ref.4690). Caught in very large quantities in the bottom trawl, trammel and fish trap fisheries. Utilized for its meat but of limited value due to its small size (Ref. 58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Litters size at birth 16 cm (Ref. 37816); Java form born at 11-16 cm WD, Bali form born at ~17 cm WD. Gives birth to litters of 1-2 pups; no reproductive synchronicity (Ref. 58048).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Dasyatidae. p. 135-142. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3263)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.9 - 29, mean 27.8 (based on 2546 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00347 - 0.03466), b=3.11 (2.85 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1-3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.