Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Psettodidae
Etymology: Psettodes: Greek, psetta = grouper + Greek, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bennett.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - 150 m (Ref. 27000), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 23°N - 14°S
Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 5377) to about 14°S.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5377); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2716); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 5377)
Unlike other flatfish, this species has a broad body; width is half the length (Ref. 4883). This demersal fish is not always in close contact with the bottom, it can chase its prey by swimming (Ref. 5377). Feeds on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1990. Psettodidae. p. 1024. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.3 - 27.9, mean 25.7 °C (based on 112 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.70 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=3-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 127 [60, 267] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.812 [0.465, 1.584] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [15.9, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.316 [0.141, 0.714] g/100g ; Selenium = 71.3 [29.8, 189.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.7 [3.3, 47.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.914 [0.584, 1.420] mg/100g (wet weight);