Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Atherininae
Etymology: Atherina: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 60°N - 14°N, 26°W - 17°E
Eastern Atlantic: Kattegat (rare) and British Isles to Canary Islands, Mauritania and Cape Verde, also western Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30578); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 232)
(total): 7 - 9;
soft rays: 14 - 17. Scales in longitudinal series 52-57. Vertebrae 46-52 (Morocco), 49-52 (the Netherlands). No pyloric appendages. A large, characteristic, brilliant silvery stripe running along flanks from head to tail, often outlined in black. No true lateral line (Ref. 232). Eye diameter same with snout length (Ref. 35388).
Small pelagic fishes in coastal areas and estuaries. Schooling, seasonal migrations in the Atlantic. Feeds on carnivorous small crustaceans and fish larvae (Ref. 5980). Reproduces in spring and summer (Ref. 30578).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawning occurs in midsummer in English Channel and North Sea.
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Atherinidae. p. 604-605. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.2 - 20.3, mean 11.5 °C (based on 348 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00319 - 0.00862), b=3.12 (2.98 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.70; tmax=4).
Prior r = 1.00, 95% CL = 0.66 - 1.50, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 226 [115, 454] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.13 [1.72, 5.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.7 [19.0, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.663 [0.285, 1.470] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.3 [8.9, 48.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.8 [8.2, 85.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [0.99, 2.21] mg/100g (wet weight);