Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 120 m (Ref. 43239). Temperate; 38°N - 13°N, 106°E - 141°E
Northwest Pacific: from central Vietnam to South Korea and Japan, Yellow and East China seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4537)
Inhabit coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 2113). Found in muddy or muddy-sandy bottoms shallower than 120 m depth (Ref. 43239). Feed on crustaceans and fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.8 - 24.7, mean 22.8 (based on 54 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00488 - 0.01293), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.56 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 5.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Prior r = 0.30, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.45, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .