Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 550 m (Ref. 6793). Temperate; 61°N - 28°N, 163°E - 114°W
Eastern Pacific: from Russia to Agattu Island, north to Nunivak Island, Alaska, then South to Mexico, Baja California, Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 30 - 32 cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885); 57.0 cm TL (female); common length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 55701)
Adults inhabit sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 4925). Young occur in intertidal areas. Feed on small crustaceans, marine worms, brittle stars and small mollusks (Ref. 6885). Spawning adults make extensive migrations (Ref. 6885).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.4 - 8.3, mean 5.6 °C (based on 245 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00360 - 0.00920), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=22; K=0.24; Fec=150,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .