Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335); stigmaeus: Citharus for its resemblance to the related genus Citharus; stigmaeus speckled (Ref. 4930). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 549 m (Ref. 27436), usually ? - 91 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 59°N -
Eastern Pacific: Montague Island, Alaska to Bahia Magdalena, southern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on sandy bottom, from near shore to 366 m (Ref. 2850). Little commercial importance because of its small size (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.7 - 15.1, mean 8.9 °C (based on 49 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00335 - 0.01717), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 207 [96, 528] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.67 [0.96, 3.04] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.274 [0.144, 0.527] g/100g ; Selenium = 27 [12, 63] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.26 [1.73, 28.29] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.914 [0.582, 1.404] mg/100g (wet weight);