Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 110 m (Ref. 26938), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 41°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to New York (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to southern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 58 - 69. Light tan to light gray with irregular pale rings or rosettes, some of which are dark-edged; scattered small dark spots and three large blackish spots along straight portion of lateral line, the middle one the best defined (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits sandy areas with coral rubble or seagrasses, usually near patch reefs (Ref. 9710). Shallow coastal waters to depths of 110 m (Ref. 26938). Lies motionless on the bottom, moving only when frightened (Ref. 9710). Larvae are attracted to lights at night but are difficult to see because they are transparent (Ref. 26938). About one-third of the diet consists of fishes; the rest of its food is crustaceans: crabs, shrimps, amphipods, and mantis shrimps (Ref. 13442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.8 - 28.9, mean 27.3 °C (based on 1916 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00407 - 0.02046), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 76 [38, 149] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.57 [0.33, 1.00] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.11 [0.05, 0.21] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [12.7, 57.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 106 [26, 408] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.19 [0.75, 1.80] mg/100g (wet weight);