Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Argyrosomus: Greek, argyros = silvered, silver + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335); regius: A. hololepidotus in Ref. 57396 refers to A. regius and A. coronus based distribution and Ref. 11025.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 15 - 300 m (Ref. 2683), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 65°N - 6°S, 23°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Gibraltar and Congo, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Migrated to the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 80 - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5377); common length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); max. published weight: 103.0 kg (Ref. 11036)
(total): 10 - 11;
(total): 27-29. Rough scales, Second dorsal fin (soft ray) twice as long as first, spiny rayed dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
Adults are found inshore and shelf waters, close to bottom as well as in surface and mid-waters, pursuing shoals of clupeids and mugilids. They congregate inshore to spawn during spring and summer. Juveniles and sub-adults enter estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 3593). Both adults and juveniles are migratory moving along shore or offshore-onshore in response to temperature change (Ref. 11025). Feed on fishes and swimming crustaceans.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 19.4, mean 15.3 °C (based on 169 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00769 - 0.00942), b=3.06 (3.03 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.75 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 12.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.09).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.3 [8.1, 108.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.647 [0.251, 1.914] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.6, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.578 [0.267, 1.278] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.7 [6.9, 106.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.2 [4.5, 65.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.632 [0.402, 1.117] mg/100g (wet weight);