Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate; 66°N - 30°N, 120°E - 120°W
North Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk and northern Japan (Ref. 559) to British Columbia, Canada.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 56527)
Found in shallow rocky areas (Ref. 2850). Caught by anglers (Ref. 559).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.1 - 7.5, mean 4.1 °C (based on 265 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5159 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00200 - 0.01144), b=3.12 (2.91 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .