Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Hexagrammidae
(Greenlings) > Hexagramminae
Etymology: Hexagrammos: Greek, exa = six + greek, gramma = letter,signal (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pallas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 596 m (Ref. 50550), usually 10 - 15 m (Ref. 9021). Temperate; 66°N - 34°N
Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea and the Kuril Islands to Point Conception, central California, USA. Reported from the northern Sea of Japan, Hokkaido, and the Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 559).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 35.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 830.00 g (Ref. 40637)
Commonly found in shallow rocky areas, especially on exposed coasts (Ref. 2850). Often captured by shore fishers (Ref. 2850).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4 - 13.2, mean 6.6 °C (based on 961 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5159 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00428 - 0.01346), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3.5;).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .