Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 2850). Temperate; 66°N - 32°N
Eastern Pacific: Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian chain (Ref. 27436) to La Jolla, southern California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27436); max. published weight: 2.1 kg (Ref. 27436); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 55701)
Occurs in rocky inshore areas, common on kelp beds, also on sand bottoms (Ref. 2850). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaete worms, brittle stars, mollusks, and small fishes (Ref. 28499). Young are food of steelheads and salmon (Ref. 6885). Frequently caught by shore and skiff fishers and speared by divers (Ref. 2850).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.1 - 13, mean 8.6 °C (based on 128 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5159 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00350 - 0.01890), b=3.12 (2.92 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3-5; tmax=18).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .