Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sillaginidae
Etymology: Sillaginopsis: See Sillago + Greek, opsis = appearance.
More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468); 23°N - 0°N, 78°E - 104°E (Ref. 6205)
Western Indian Ocean: Pondicherry northward along the Coromandel coast, Ganges delta, Myanmar, southward to Malaysia and rarely to the Indonesian Archipelago.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3504)
Found in shallow, open muddy bays and estuaries (Ref. 4833). Feed on fish, crustaceans and algae. Spawn twice a year during the months of November to February and August to September and the juveniles migrate toward the upper reaches during March and April and during December where they remain for 2 to 3 months. Sexually mature upon reaching a length of 12 cm (Ref. 6205). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McKay, R.J., 1992. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.7 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 170 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00243 - 0.00716), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 213 [73, 636] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.05 [0.62, 4.98] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.1, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.309 [0.141, 0.647] g/100g ; Selenium = 73.6 [19.0, 253.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.6 [3.8, 78.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.63, 2.73] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.