Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical; 9°S - 37°S
Southwest Atlantic: southern Brazil to southern Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. ); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
(total): 5 - 6;
soft rays: 33 - 41;
Vertebrae: 27. First dorsal fin composed of several short spines preceded by an anteriorly directed spine usually completely embedded under skin. Two detached anal spines anterior to soft anal fin. Lateral line curved and undulated, with more or less 10 branches anteriorly and fairly straight posteriorly (Ref. 27363). A black patch on the opercle is a conspicuous character of this species, thus the name signata (Ref. 3157).
Maximum length assumed to be 1.5 * 40 = 60 cm TL (RF).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.3 - 22, mean 19.3 °C (based on 75 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00477 - 0.02194), b=2.93 (2.75 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm>=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 78.3 [40.9, 160.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.66 [0.97, 2.85] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [17.9, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.399 [0.259, 0.664] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.1 [19.9, 76.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [3.5, 28.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.665 [0.453, 0.976] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.