Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gobiiformes
(Gobies) > Eleotridae
(Bully sleepers) > Eleotrinae
Etymology: Dormitator: Latin, dormire = to sleep (Ref. 45335); maculatus: Specific name means 'spotted' or 'stained'. More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 17°C - 35°C (Ref. 35237); 37°N - 5°S
North to South America: along the Atlantic slope from North Carolina (USA) to southeastern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 14.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Adults inhabit marshes, muddy ponds and channels with a salinity range of 0 to 21 ppt (Ref. 7251), up to 38.4 ppt in some cases (Ref. 97140). Mostly found in fresh water but also in brackish mangrove areas. They ascend upstream but remain in the lower reaches. Sexually mature after one year. Gonads develop during the dry season. Average size at maturity is 5.1 cm for males, 4.5 cm for females. Omnivorous, adults feed mainly on plants, sediments and invertebrates. They undergo coloration change during reproduction, carrying out a complex nuptial parade. Adults guard the nest. Egg is 0.3 mm, incubation time is 11 to 16 hours at 27°C (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28.1, mean 27.3 °C (based on 807 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00436 - 0.02631), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 97.4 [46.3, 184.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.884 [0.495, 1.627] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.395 [0.204, 0.750] g/100g ; Selenium = 73.5 [34.3, 155.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.1 [4.3, 48.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.4 [0.9, 2.3] mg/100g (wet weight);