Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 70 m (Ref. 9626), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 43°N - 38°S, 97°W - 35°W (Ref. 44847)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA through the Gulf of Mexico and scattered localities in the West Indies (Ref. 26938) to Brazil. Also found in Argentina (Ref. 44847). Absent from clear waters of Bahamas and similar islands (Ref. 7251).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 3.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults occur in coastal waters, commonly entering bays and estuaries. Juveniles found in sandy beaches exposed to wave action (Ref. 5217). Adults are absent from insular areas with coralline habitats (Ref. 5217). They generally form small to large schools. They feed on mollusks, crustaceans and other invertebrates and small fish. Excellent food fish (Ref. 9626). Highest priced marine food fish in the USA (Ref. 171). Have been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 28, mean 25.6 °C (based on 454 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00914 - 0.02877), b=2.81 (2.66 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 92.1 [46.0, 207.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.47 [0.74, 3.02] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.638 [0.296, 1.436] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.4 [10.9, 71.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.2 [2.8, 44.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.979 [0.572, 1.560] mg/100g (wet weight);