Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Roncador: Spanish, roncar, roncador = snore, snort (1882) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 22 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 34°N - 22°N, 121°W - 113°W
Eastern Pacific: Point Conception in California, USA to southern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118); max. published weight: 4.8 kg (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56049)
Occur in sandy shores and bays, mostly in shallow surf zones, but also to 15 m depth. Often found near rocks and entrances to bays. Usually form small groups, but aggregate for spawning. Pelagic spawners (Ref. 56049). Feed on invertebrates, such as marine worms, clams, crabs and small crustaceans.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.9 - 19.5, mean 17.8 (based on 20 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.44 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 3.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2.5; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .