Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Moronidae
Etymology: More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 7251). Temperate; 10°C - 33°C (Ref. 121663); 50°N - 32°N, 96°W - 59°W
North America: Atlantic Slope drainages from St. Lawrence drainage in Quebec, Canada south to Savannah River in Georgia, USA. Transplanted to Great Lakes (except Superior) and Ohio-Missouri-Mississippi river systems of mid-western USA; elsewere as far west as Colorado, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798); common length : 13.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 120584); max. reported age: 16 years (Ref. 72462)
Occurs in fresh, brackish and coastal waters (Ref. 7251). Inhabits pools and other quiet-water areas of medium to large rivers, usually over mud (Ref. 86798). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Assuming same mode of reproduction as in M. saxatilis.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 4.7 - 18.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00185 - 0.01077), b=3.13 (2.91 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 15.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.13; tmax=7(?)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.4 [10.1, 71.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.241 [0.124, 0.490] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [16.0, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.68 [0.27, 1.61] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.8 [5.6, 41.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.8 [5.6, 149.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.893 [0.500, 1.564] mg/100g (wet weight);