Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Zoarcoidei
(Eelpouts and pricklebacks) > Zoarcidae
(Eelpouts) > Gymnelinae
Etymology: Gymnelus: Gymnelus, derived from Greek, gymnēlos (Latinized Greek) = poor, needy (akin to Greek gymnos for destitute (E. Spencer, pers.comm. 09/13)..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 320 m (Ref. 50610), usually - m (Ref. ). Polar; 0°C - ; 84°N - 39°N, 180°W - 20°E
Arctic: Greenland and Canadian Arctic. Northeast Pacific: Bering Sea (Ref. 51665). Northern Atlantic: Canada and Barents Sea. Replaced by other species in the Arctic seas of Eurasia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4926)
Inhabits continental shelves, but generally living in shallower water (Ref. 11954); usually live over sand and muddy bottoms among seaweeds (Ref. 5951). Benthic; feeds on crustaceans, worms and clams (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Anderson, M.E., 1994. Systematics and osteology of the Zoarcidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. 60:120 p. (Ref. 11954)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.5 - 4.8, mean -0.5 °C (based on 1722 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00148 - 0.00535), b=3.19 (3.01 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .