Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 77 m (Ref. 122739), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 16°N, 32°E - 59°E
Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea: Tunisia eastwards. Immigrant from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 120651)
Inhabits coastal waters and feeds on bottom invertebrates. Reproduces in the summer months (Ref. 6757).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roux, C., 1986. Leiognathidae. p. 856-857. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6757)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29.3, mean 26.5 °C (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00916 - 0.01507), b=3.09 (3.02 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .