Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 100 - 600 m (Ref. 57911), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 47377). Deep-water; 48°N - 35°S, 56°W - 98°W (Ref. 57911)
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Florida, USA and around Gulf of Mexico; along coasts of Central America and South America to Brazil, and Uruguay (Ref. 47377).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Scales lacks tiny spines. Swim bladder not silvery (Ref. 7251). Six gill rakers on lower arm of first gill arch (Ref. 37473).
Found on soft bottoms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.4 - 24.3, mean 18.8 °C (based on 43 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00231 - 0.00788), b=3.15 (2.98 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .