Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cilus: Latin, cilo, -onis = somebody that has got long and narrow head (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 6°S - 37°S, 80°W - 70°W
Southeast Pacific: Peru and Chile.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 92.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122662)
Regarded as a prime table fish in South America.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chirichigno, N.F., 1974. Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru. Inf. Inst. Mar Perú (44):1-387. (Ref. 5530)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.1 - 17.1, mean 14.7 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00466 - 0.01353), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 84.1 [48.3, 150.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.634 [0.346, 1.080] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [18.4, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.22 [0.12, 0.37] g/100g ; Selenium = 88.4 [47.1, 164.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.4 [5.1, 38.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.813 [0.553, 1.240] mg/100g (wet weight);