Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 80 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 31°N - 30°S, 30°E - 174°W (Ref. 55)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 97.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 10.5 kg (Ref. 4699)
soft rays: 8. Dorsal profile of head steeply sloped. Preorbital width equal to eye diameter or larger. Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. Scale rows on back parallel to lateral line. Center of each scale often with a reddish-brown spot, giving an overall appearance of series of horizontal lines on side of body. Generally yellow with a bronze to silvery sheen, shading to silvery white on belly and underside of the head. A large black blotch mainly above the lateral line below the anterior dorsal-fin rays.
Adults probably frequent coral reef areas; juveniles found in mangrove estuaries (Ref. 30573). Feed on fishes and benthic invertebrates including shrimps, crabs and cephalopods. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1824 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00860 - 0.02115), b=2.93 (2.81 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.13-0.38).
Prior r = 0.62, 95% CL = 0.41 - 0.93, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 22 [11, 41] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.3 [0.2, 0.5] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.2, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.269 [0.144, 0.509] g/100g ; Selenium = 74.6 [37.2, 144.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 218 [38, 838] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.54 [0.36, 0.92] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.