Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays)
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 130 m (Ref. 57911). Tropical; 33°N - 40°S, 180°W - 180°E
Worldwide in tropical waters. Western Atlantic: South Carolina, USA to Argentina. Often confused with Myliobatis freminvillii.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 125 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); common length : 80.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Smaller dorsal fin set farther back on tail, well beyond the pelvic fins. Disk broader, with more rounded corners of wings. Snout less projecting. No spines on disk (Ref. 7251). Broader separation between the inner ends of gill openings. Chocolate or greyish brown above and brownish white below (Ref. 6902).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). In coastal waters down to 130 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 27.8, mean 24.4 °C (based on 732 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00121 - 0.01252), b=3.08 (2.83 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46.1 [5.1, 152.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.636 [0.140, 1.553] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [17.9, 23.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.156 [0.050, 0.433] g/100g ; Selenium = 57.4 [15.8, 168.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.7 [4.4, 27.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.85 [0.40, 2.06] mg/100g (wet weight);