Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; non-migratory; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 10°N - 5°N
Africa: Bia, Tano and Pra Rivers (southeast Côte d'Ivoire and southwest Ghana) as well as in Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana (Ref. 53405).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5163)
(total): 14 - 16;
soft rays: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: lower pharyngeal bone about as long as broad, and with anterior lamella shorter than toothed area; median pharyngeal teeth not broadened; upper profile of head strongly convex; dorsal fin with 14-16 spines and 12-15 soft rays; flanks and belly whitish; head, back and flanks with irregular black spots; no bifurcated dark vertical bars on flanks; dorsal and anal without orange-red upper margin; caudal greyish to blackish (Ref. 53405).
Mainly herbivorous, but also takes small amounts of crustaceans and insects (Ref. 52307). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Pair-bonding, open (Ref. 52307) substrate brooder/spawner, with both parents guarding the brood (Ref. 52307, 55659). Eggs are laid and incubated in nests (Ref. 55659).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Courtship occurs as male circular displays around the females. Unresponsive females are chased away from the spawning area by the males. Distinct pairing (Ref. 205) is resorted to after courtship. Each couple prepares the nest in a chosen suitable substrate where the eggs are laid in batches, fertilised, incubated and hatched. Both parents guard the eggs from intruders.
Dunz, A.R. and U.K. Schliewen, 2013. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 68(1):64-80. (Ref. 93285)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00700 - 0.03275), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 225 [118, 425] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.01 [1.24, 3.79] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.326 [0.137, 0.913] g/100g ; Selenium = 63.1 [28.6, 130.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.4 [5.1, 48.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.35 [1.62, 4.14] mg/100g (wet weight);