Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range ? - 1281 m (Ref. 26282). Deep-water
Northwest Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559) and the China (Ref. 44036).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Pelvic fin short, not reaching below insertion of pectoral fin; its length contained 5.4 times in head length. Pelvic girdle narrow, with a median foramen. Attains 1.7 m SL.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.1 - 12.9, mean 8.8 (based on 49 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5315 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00195 (0.00073 - 0.00522), b=3.13 (2.90 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .