Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Paradicichthyinae
Etymology: Symphorichthys: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 60 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 31°S, 98°E - 173°W
Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and the Great Barrier Reef, including New Guinea, Sulawesi (Celebes), Admiralty Islands, Palau, and Philippines. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Also known from eastern Indian Ocean from Rowley Shoals and off Broome, Western Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
Adults occur over sand bottoms in the vicinity of coral reefs. Usually seen singly. They feed on fishes and sand-dwelling crustaceans and mollusks. Mature individuals aggregate to spawn along seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). They are occasionally seen in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29, mean 28.1 °C (based on 912 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00486 - 0.03117), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.3 [21.8, 66.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.5 [0.3, 0.8] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.4, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.142 [0.097, 0.209] g/100g ; Selenium = 43.5 [25.7, 69.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.4 [24.2, 179.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.66, 1.44] mg/100g (wet weight);