Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Pinjalo: A Malay word, pinialo, for a fish. More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 100 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 27°S, 32°E - 155°E (Ref. 55)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea), north to Taiwan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47613); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55)
Adults inhabit reefs and rocky bottoms (Ref. 30573). They are found in schools over shallow depths of a few meters in open ocean reefs. In most areas they are found in deep waters and are usually trawled to 100 m depth (Ref. 48635). They feed on benthic and planktonic invertebrates (Ref. 30573), and possibly small fishes. Marketed fresh or dried-salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and W.D. Anderson Jr., 1987. Revision of the Indo-Pacific lutjanid genus Pinjalo, with description of a new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (14):17 p. (Ref. 6177)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 28.6, mean 27.6 °C (based on 770 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00690 - 0.03030), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.3 [17.4, 50.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.471 [0.283, 0.745] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.3, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.129 [0.088, 0.192] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.9 [28.1, 74.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 51.3 [19.0, 139.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.984 [0.638, 1.389] mg/100g (wet weight);