Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 36°N - 30°S, 32°E - 174°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and the East Africa to Palau and New Caledonia, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands (Ref. 559, 26066), south to Australia. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 18.0 kg (Ref. 3287)
Adults prefer rocky and coral reef areas, but also found on offshore banks (Ref. 30573). They are found singly or in small to large schools (Ref. 9710, 48635, 90102). They feed on small invertebrates and fishes (Ref. 5213).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 29.1, mean 27.9 (based on 2214 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01198 - 0.03175), b=2.92 (2.79 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .